Citadel, Market and Altar
This book, written by 19th century inventor, horticulturist, economist, peace activist, entrepreneur, and lawyer Spencer Heath (grandfather of Art of Community author Spencer Heath MacCallum) is a sweeping account of human cultural evolution. Heath argues that society can be understood as having three components: citadel -- the ability to defend citizens and protect property, market -- the process of productive exchange and social cooperation, and altar -- the creative and spiritual expressions of art, religion, and culture. Each of these pieces builds on the others.
For Heath, the goal of human community is to allow all people to achieve happiness and connectedness with others through creative expression. We will only reach this goal (the 'Altar'), Heath argues, if we can ensure a proper sphere for citadel and market. Written in an idiosyncratic as unique as the author, it outlines a theory of community governance where entrepreneurs provide services traditionally provided by governments. He also offers interesting observations on Henry George, technology, entrepreneurship, land economics, taxation, history, art, and human creativity.
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